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Amino Acids

Maximum Amino Acid Content per serving

Serving size = 12g
(92% protein, 8% moisture)

Amino Acid Percent Milligrams per serving (+/- 10%)
Alanine 11 1,210
Arginine 9.3 1,023
Aspartic Acid 6.7 737
Cystine 0.1 11
Glutamic  Acid 11.4 1,254
Glycine 29 3,190
*Histidine 1 110
Hydroxylysine 1.2 132
Hydroxyproline 14.5 1,595
*Isoleucine 1.8 198
Amino Acid Percent Milligrams per serving (+/- 10%)
*Leucine 3.4 374
*Lysine 4.6 506
*Methionine 1 110
*Phenylalanine 2.6 286
Proline 17.6 1,936
Serine 3.8 418
*Threonine 2.2 242
*Tryptophane 0 0
Tyrosine 1 110
*Valine 3.3 363
*indicates an essential amino acid

ALANINE

Non-Essential - Proteogenic - Glycogenic

Non-Polar, Hydrophobic - Aliphatic

Main Functions:

  • Important source of energy for muscle.
  • The primary amino acid in sugar metabolism.
  • Boosts immune system by producing antibodies
  • Major part of connective tissue

ARGININE

Non-Essential - Proteogenic - Glycogenic - Basic Side Chains

Main Functions:

  • Essential for normal immune system activity.
  • Necessary for wound healing.
  • Assists with regeneration of damaged liver.
  • Necessary for production and release of growth hormone
  • Increases release of insulin and glucagon. Arginine is the most potent amino acid in releasing insulin.
  • Assists in healing through collagen synthesis
  • Precursor to GABA, an important inhibitory neurotransmitter
  • Aids in wound healing
  • Decreases size of tumors.
  • Necessary for spermatogenesis.

ASPARTIC ACID

Non-Essential - Proteogenic - Glycogenic - Acid Side Chain

Main Functions:

  • Aspartic Acid is interconvertible with Asparagine, and therefore the two amino acids have many functions in common.
  • Increases stamina.
  • One of the two main excitatory amino acids, the other being Glutamate (Glutamic Acid).
  • Helps protect the liver by aiding the removal of ammonia.
  • Involved in DNA and RNA metabolism.
  • Involved in immune system function by enhancing immunoglobulin production and anti- body formation.

ASPARAGINE

Non-Essential - Proteogenic - Un-charged, Hydrophilic - Amidic

Main Functions:

  • Asparagine is made from Aspartic Acid plus ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate).
  • One of the two main excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamate, made from glutamic acid, is the other. Among their functions as neurotransmitters, of particular interest is the fact that Aspartic Acid and Asparagine have high concentrations in the hippocampus and the hypothalamus. The hippocampus is a part of the brain that plays the main role in short-term memory, while the hypothalamus is involved in the biology of emotion, and serves as a neurological gate between the brain and the rest of the nervous system.
  • Aids in removing ammonia from the body.
  • May increase indurance and decrease fatigue.
  • Detoxifies harmful chemicals.
  • Involved in DNA synthesis.
  • Probably stimulates thymus gland.

CYSTEINE-CYSTINE

Non-Essential - Glycogenic and Ketogenic

Un-charged, Hydrophilic - Sulfur-Containing

Main Functions:

  • Cysteine and Cystine are interconvertible. Two molecules of Cysteine make Cystine.
  • Antioxidant.
  • Protective against radiation, pollution, ultra-violet light and other causes of increased free radical production.
  • Natural detoxifier.
  • Essential in growth, maintenance, and repair of skin.
  • Key ingredient in hair.
  • One of the 3 main sulfur-containing amino acids, along with Taurine and Methionine.
  • Major constituent of Glutathione, an important tripeptide made up of Cystine, Glutamic Acid, and Glycine.
  • Precursor to the amino acid Taurine.
  • Precursor to Chondroitin Sulfate, the main component of cartilage.

GLUTAMIC ACID

Non-Essential - Proteogenic - Glycogenic - Acid Side Chain

Main Functions:

  • Glutamic Acid is a precursor to Glutamine and GABA (2 neurotransmitters).
  • One of two excitatory neurotransmitters, the other being aspartic acid/asparagine.
  • Excesses in brain tissue can call cell damage. This is thought to be one of the mechanisms by why strokes kill brain cells; that is through the release of large amounts of Glutamic Acid.
  • Helps stop alcohol and sugar cravings.
  • Increases energy.
  • Accelerates wound healing and ulcer healing.
  • Detoxifies ammonia in the brain by forming glutamine, which can cross the blood-brain barrier, which Glutamic Acid cannot do.
  • Plays major role in DNA synthesis.

GLUTAMINE

Non-Essential - Proteogenic - Glycogenic

Un-charged, Hydrophilic - Amidic

Main Functions:

  • Precursor to the neurotransmitter GABA. This is a vital function, as GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that produces serenity and relaxation.
  • Important glycogenic amino acid, meaning that it is essential for helping to maintain normal and steady blood sugar levels.
  • Involved with muscle strength and indurance.
  • Essential to gastrointestinal function; provides energy to the small intestines. The intestines are the only organ in the body that uses Glutamine as its primary source of energy.
  • Glutamine has the highest blood concentration of all the amino acids.
  • Precursor to the neurotransmitter amino acid Glutamate (Glutamic Acid).
  • Involved in DNA synthesis.

GLYCINE

Non-Essential - Proteogenic - Glycogenic

Non-Polar, Hydrophobic - Aliphatic

Main Functions:

  • Part of the stucture of hemoglobin.
  • One of the two main inhibitory neurotransmitters, the other being GABA.
  • Part of cytochromes, which are enzymes involved in energy production.
  • Inhibits sugar cravings.
  • One of the 3 critical glycogenic amino acids, along with serine and alanine.
  • Involved in glucagon production, which assists in glycogen metabolism.

HISTIDINE

Essential - Proteogenic - Glycogenic - Basic Side Chains

Main Functions:

  • Found in high concentrations in hemoglobin.
  • Useful in treating anemia due to relationship to hemoglobin.
  • Has been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Precursot to histamine.
  • Associated with allergic response and has been used to treat allergy.
  • Assists in maintaining proper blood pH.

HYDROXYLYSINE

Non-Essential, Non-proteinogenic amino acid, hydroxylated derivative of the amino acid lysine

MAIN FUNCTION:

  • Plays a critical role collagen stability
  • Uniquely found in collagen
  • Deficiency Seen In:
  • Hydroxylysine-deficiency genetic disease

HYDROXYPROLINE

Non-Essential, Non-proteinogenic amino acid, made from hydroxylation of proline

MAIN FUNCTION:

  • Major structural component in collagen
  • Used as indicator to measure quantity of collagen in a sample
  • Formed in the presence of vitamin C
  • Deficiency Seen In:
  • Scurvy
  • Excess Seen In:
  • Excretion of hydroxyproline seen in Wilson’s disease

ISOLEUCINE

Essential - Proteogenic - Glycogenic and Ketogenic

Non-Polar, Hydrophobic - Aliphatic

Main Functions:

  • One of the 3 major Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAA), all of which are involved with muscle strength, endurance, and muscle stamina.
  • Muscle tissue uses Isoleucine as an energy source.
  • Required in the formation of hemoglobin.
  • BCAA levels are significantly decreased by insulin. Translation: High dietary sugar or glucose intake causes release of insulin, which, in turn, causes a drop in BCAA levels. Therefore, right before exercise, it is not wise to ingest foods high in glucose or other sugars, as the BCAA's, including Isoleucine will not be readily available to muscles.

LEUCINE

Essential - Proteogenic - Ketogenic - Non-Polar, Hydrophobic - Aliphatic

Main Functions:

  • As one of the 3 branched-chain amino acids (the other 2 being Isoleucine and Valine), Leucine has all of the properties discussed with Isoleucine, as it pertains specifically to the branched-chain amino acid functions.
  • Potent stimulator of insulin.
  • Helps with bone healing.
  • Helps promote skin healing.
  • Modulates release of Enkephalins, which are natural pain-reducers.

LYSINE

Essential - Proteogenic - Glycogenic and Ketogenic - Basic Side Chains

Main Functions:

  • Inhibits viral growth and, as a result, is used in the treatment of Herpes Simplex, as well as the viruses associated with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, such as: Epstein-Barr Virus, CytoMegalo Virus, and HHV6.
  • L-Carnitine is formed from Lysine and Vitamin C.
  • Helps form collagen, the connective tissue present in bones, ligaments, tendons, and joints.
  • Assists in the absorption of calcium.
  • Essential for children, as it is critical for bone formation.
  • Involved in hormone production.
  • Lowers serum triglyceride levels.

METHIONINE

Essential - Proteogenic - Glycogenic

Non-Polar, Hydrophobic - Sulfur-Containing

Main Functions:

  • Assists in breakdown of fats.
  • Precursor of the amino acids Cysteine (and Cystine) and Taurine.
  • Helps reduce blood cholesterol levels.
  • Antioxidant.
  • Assists in the removal of toxic wastes from the liver.
  • One of the sulfur-containing aminos (the others being Cysteine and the minor amino acid, Taurine). The sulfur-containing amino acids act as anti-oxidants which neutralize free radicals.
  • Helps prevent disorder of hair, skin, and nails due to sulfur and anti-oxidant activity.
  • Precursor to Carnitine,Melatonin (the natural sleep aid) and Choline (part of the neurotransmitter, Acetylcholine).
  • Involved in the breakdown of Epinephrine, Histamine, and Nicotinic Acid.
  • Required for synthesis of RNA and DNA.
  • Natural chelating agent for heavy metals, such as lead and mercury.

PHENYLALANINE

Essential - Proteogenic - Glycogenic and Ketogenic

Non-Polar, Hydrophobic - Aromatic

Main Functions:

  • Precursor to Tyrosine, which, in turn, is the precursor to the neurotransmitters: Dopamine and the excitatory neurotransmitters Norepinephrine and Epinephrine.
  • Precursor to the hormone, Thyroxine.
  • Enhances mood, clarity of thought, concentration, and memory.
  • Suppresses appetite.
  • Major part of collagen formation.
  • While the L-form of all of the other amino acids is the one that is beneficial to people, the
  • D and DL forms of Phenylalanine have been useful in treating pain.
  • DL-Phenylalanine is useful in reducing arthritic pain.
  • Powerful anti-depressant.
  • Used in the treatment of Parkinson's Disease.

PROLINE

Non-Essential - Proteogenic - Glycogenic

Non-Polar, Hydrophobic - Aliphatic

Main Functions:

  • Critical component of cartilage , and hence health of joints, tendons and ligaments.
  • Involved in keeping heart muscle strong.
  • The main precursor to Proline is Glutamate.
  • Secondary precursor to Proline is Ornithine (minor amino acid).
  • Works in conjunction with Vitamin C in keeping skin and joints healthy.

SERINE

Non-Essential - Proteogenic - Glycogenic

Un-charged, Hydrophilic - Hydroxylic

Main Functions:

  • One of the 3 most important glycogenic amino acids, the others being alanine and glycine.
  • Critical in maintaining blood sugar levels.
  • Boosts immune system by assisting in production of antibodies and immunoglobulins.
  • Myelin sheath (the fatty acid complex that surrounds the axons of nerves is derived from serine. One variation of Serine namely Phosphotidyl Serine, a minor amino acid serves several important functions within the central nervous system, including development of the myelin sheath. Multiple Sclerosis is one of the so-called "De-myelinating Diseases."
  • Required for growth and maintenance of muscle.
  • The amino acid Glycine is a precursor to Serine and the two are interconvertible.

THREONINE

Essential - Proteogenic - Glycogenic

Un-charged, Hydrophilic - Hydroxylic

Main Functions:

  • Required for formation of collagen.
  • Helps prevent fatty deposits in the liver.
  • Aids in production of antibodies.
  • Can be converted to Glycine (a neurotransmitter) in the central nervous system.
  • Acts as detoxifier.
  • Needed by the GI (gastrointensinal) tract for normal functioning.
  • Provides symptomatic relife in ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Lou Gehrig's Disease).
  • In laboratory experiments with animals, Threonine increases thymus weight.
  • Threonine is often low in depressed patients. In that group of patients, Threonine is helpful in treating the depression.

TRYPTOPHANE

Essential - Proteogenic - Glycogenic and Ketogenic

Non-Polar, Hydrophobic - Aromatic

Main Functions:

  • Precursor to the key neurotransmitter, serotonin, which exerts a calming effect.
  • Effective sleep aid, due to conversion to serotonin.
  • Reduces anxiety.
  • Effective in some forms of depression.
  • Treatment for migraine headaches.
  • Stimulates growth hormone.
  • Along with Lysine, Carnitine, and Taurine is effective in lowering cholesterol levels.
  • Can be converted into niacin (Vitamin B3).
  • Lowers risk of arterial spasms.
  • The only plasma amino acid that is bound to protein.
  • Tryptophane must compete with 5 other amino acids to pass through the blood-brain barrier and enter the brain. Those 5 are: tyrosine, phenylalanine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine and are called Large Neutral Amino Acids (LNAA).
  • Requires pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P5P) a form of vitamin B6 to be converted into serotonin. P5P deficiency will lower serotonin levels, even if Tryptophane levels are normal.

TYROSINE

Non-Essential - Proteogenic - Glycogenic and Ketogenic

Un-charged, Hydrophilic - Aromatic

Main Functions:

  • Precursor to neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine (adrenaline) and melanin.
  • Effective anti-depressant for norepinephrine-deficient depressions. Tyrosine is preferred over Phenylalanine, which is also a precursor to all of the above neurotransmitters. Phenylalanine is one step removed from the metabolic process, and can aggravate high blood pressure.
  • Precursor to thyroxine and growth hormone.
  • Increases energy, improves mental clarity and concentration.
  • Requires pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P5P) a form of vitamin B6 to be converted into norepinephrine. P5P deficiency will lower norepinephrine levels, even if Tyrosine levels are normal.

VALINE

Essential - Proteogenic - Glycogenic

Non-Polar, Hydrophobic - Aliphatic

Main Functions:

  • One of the 3 major Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAA) . . .the other 2 being leucine and isoleucine . . . all of which are involved with muscle strength, endurance, and muscle stamina.
  • BCAA levels are significantly decreased by insulin. High dietary sugar or glucose intake causes release of insulin, which, in turn, causes a drop in BCAA levels.
  • Competes with Tyrosine and Tryptophane in crossing the blood-brain barrier. The higher the Valine level, the lower the brain levels of Tyrosine and Tryptophane. One of the implications of this competition is that Tyrosine and Tryptophane nutritional supplements need to be taken at least an hour before or after meals or supplements that are high in branched chain amino acids.
  • Actively absorbed and used directly by muscle as an energy source.
  • Not processed by the liver before entering the blood stream.
  • Any acute physical stress (including surgery, sepsis, fever, trauma, starvation) requires higher amounts of Valine, Leucine and Isoleucine that any of the other amino acids.
  • During period of Valine deficiency, all of the other amino acids (and protein) are less well absorbed by the GI tract.

 

**"The information provided on the following amino acids are copied from the work of the Gersten Institute . This web site is intended as information only and is not a substitute for diagnosis and treatment by a physician. The Gersten Institute for Higher Medicine seeks to broaden the understanding of amino acid biochemistry". Great Lakes Gelatin Co. agrees with these findings.

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